Vaginismus: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and More

Vaginismus is a condition that causes significant physical and emotional distress for those affected. It is characterized by an involuntary spasm in the pelvic floor, which makes vaginal penetrations painful or impossible.

While several treatment options are available, it is important to understand the root causes of vaginismus in order to provide effective care and support.

This article provides an overview of vaginismus, including its symptoms, potential causes, prevention strategies, coping strategies for living with it, and medical professionals’ role in providing comprehensive care.

What is Vaginismus

Vaginismus is the involuntary, instantaneous contraction of the pelvic floor muscles by the vaginal opening in anticipation of penetration, making vaginal penetrations – finger, sexual intercourse, tampon, vaginal applicator, gynecologic examination – difficult or impossible. 

Vaginismus used to be viewed as a sexual dysfunction condition that is associated with history of sexual abuse, and characterized by painful intercourse.  This has been refuted: vaginismus is about any vaginal penetration, not only sex, and is always an anxiety-based condition, whether the woman is aware of her underlying anxiety, or not.  

Symptoms of Vaginismus

The primary symptom of vaginismus is the pain or discomfort during vaginal penetration. Other symptoms include:

  • The feeling of ‘like hitting a brick wall’
  • Anxiety or fear related to vaginal use
  • Difficulty with vaginal penetrations
  • A burning or stinging sensation during penetration attempts

It is essential to note that symptoms may vary in severity, and can occur in different situations, depending on the individual.

Causes of Vaginismus

Underlying anxiety is always the cause of vaginismus.  However, this anxiety can be laying dormant, or not be noticeable, until provoked by either physical and/or psychological factors, such as

Psychological Factors

  • Fear of the unknown, such as “will it hurt?”
  • Negative emotions, such as guilt or shame, associated with vaginal use or sex
  • Religious or cultural inhibitions
  • Anxiety or fear related to sexual intercourse
  • Relationship issues, including trust or communication problems
  • Being forced into sexual intimacy
  • A failed gynecologic examination, with clinician’s berating the patient for it
  • Past negative experiences

Physical Factors

  • Infections,, such as urinary tract, yeast infection, sexually transmitted
  • Gynecological issues, including endometriosis or vulvodynia
  • Complicated vaginal childbirth
  • Hormonal decline, such as in menopause or cancer treatment
  • Pelvic surgeries or injuries

Diagnosing Vaginismus

Most women with vaginismus keep quiet about the condition and do not disclose it nor reach for medical advice.  Instead, they embark on Internet search and join vaginismus support groups through which they validate their vaginismus.  In other words, vaginismus is commonly self diagnosed. 

For those women who do seek medical advice, a comprehensive medical assessment by a knowledgeable clinician is crucial for accurately diagnosing vaginismus. The assessment process might involve the following:

  • A thorough medical history & evaluation of medical, sexual, social, and emotional components
  • Conducting a pelvic examination, if the woman can handle it, to evaluate and rule out other medical issues or infections
  • Referral to a vaginismus specialist

Types of Vaginismus

Vaginismus is divided into two types, Primary Vaginismus and Secondary Vaginismus.

Primary Vaginismus:

Primary vaginismus means that the woman always has had difficulty with vaginal insertions, or has never been able to have them at all.   

Secondary Vaginismus:

Secondary vaginismus – the inability or great difficulty with vaginal penetrations –  develops after previously having had successful penetrations in the past.  There are many possible causes for secondary vaginismus, including surgical scarring, tightly healed episiotomy, Lichen Sclerosus, menopause, estrogen-reducing medications, vaginal radiation, painful experiences (i.e. vaginal infection, sexually transmitted infection, forced penetration),  complicated vaginal delivery, emotional crisis, complicated postpartum, and more.

Treatment Options for Vaginismus

Various vaginismus treatment options exist for individuals struggling with vaginismus, and the best approach will vary based on each person’s specific circumstances.  An in-person treatment is always the best way but since it is not always possible, virtual coaching is a viable option.

Treatments for vaginismus includes any combination of the following methods:

Pelvic Floor Physical Therapy

A qualified physical therapist can guide those experiencing vaginismus in relaxing and managing their pelvic floor muscles, which can help reduce involuntary contractions.

Vaginal Dilators

Vaginal dilators are graduated cylindrical devices inserted into the vagina to help stretch and relax the vaginal muscles gradually. Patients can work up to larger sizes, starting with a small dilator as they become more comfortable.

Sex Therapy and Counseling

Working with a qualified therapist or counselor can help individuals address any underlying psychological or emotional factors contributing to vaginismus. This may involve cognitive-behavioral therapy, mindfulness techniques, or couples counseling.

Botox injections

Done under sedation, its goal is to relax the vaginal muscles and introduce a dilator, with the woman to continue dilation past the procedure.  This approach does not address the underlying anxiety that is the cause of vaginismus. 


In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage anxiety or depression associated with vaginismus or to address any underlying medical conditions contributing to the condition.

Lifestyle Changes and Self-Care

Contrary to common belief, lifestyle has no impact on vaginismus.  It is a great fallacy that women with vaginismus need to change what they eat, how they exercise, what activities to eliminate and which to escalate, etc. – watch our video Vaginismus Treatment Misconceptions to understand the scope of baseless limitations that various clinicians suggest.

Self-care may help by understanding vaginismus, managing the underlying anxiety, engaging sexually in all ways but penetrative, maintaining open communication with the partner about sexual needs and concerns, and realizing that ‘you are not the only one’ who is struggling with this condition!

Avoiding Surgical Intervention in Vaginismus

Surgical intervention for vaginismus should generally be avoided. Given the complex nature of the condition and its strong association with psychological factors, non-invasive treatments should be prioritized. Surgery will not effectively address the root causes of vaginismus and could lead to additional complications or exacerbate the issue.

However, a hymenectomy may be in order when the hymenal tissue is intact and resistant to manual stretch.  Sadly, clinicians often assume that all virgins have an intact hymen (a fallacy!) and that a hymenectomy will sort out any penetrative inability (another fallacy!), and they commonly recommend this surgical solution.  While this simple procedure will be of help to the woman without vaginismus (no underlying anxiety about any vaginal penetration), it will not cure vaginismus.

Preventing Vaginismus

It is not possible to prevent vaginismus, but recognizing it as early as possible is key to limiting its impact on the woman’s life, health, and sexual intimacy.  

  • Do Internet research to learn about vaginismus 
  • Speak with your healthcare provider about inability to have vaginal penetrations
  • Maintain open communication with your partner about sexual needs and concerns
  • Seek treatment 

Living with Vaginismus

Living with vaginismus is physically and emotionally challenging. However, with the right treatment and support, women can overcome the condition, own their vagina, and enjoy a pain-free & fulfilling sex life. Some coping strategies that may help include:

  • Educating oneself about vaginismus to better understand the condition
  • Connecting with support groups or online forums to share experiences and learn from others who have faced similar challenges
  • Practicing patience and self-compassion, as overcoming vaginismus may take time and effort
  • Avoid penetrations that cause pain to minimize the deepening of the associated anxiety, especially painful penetrative sex – more of such is not necessarily better! 
  • Seek treatment – do not avoid it! 

The Role of Medical Professionals

Healthcare providers are crucial in diagnosing and treating vaginismus and providing emotional support to individuals affected. Medical professionals must be knowledgeable about vaginismus, its symptoms, and treatment options to provide the most comprehensive care possible.

Responsibilities of Medical Professionals

Healthcare providers have a responsibility to:

  • Take patient concerns seriously and provide a thorough evaluation for individuals presenting with symptoms of vaginismus
  • Maintain patient confidentiality and provide a safe, non-judgmental environment for discussing sensitive topics related to sexual health
  • Provide appropriate referrals to specialists, such as pelvic floor physical therapists, sex therapists, or psychologists, when necessary
  • Stay up-to-date on the latest research and treatment options for female sexual dysfunction in general, and vaginismus in particular.

Data on Vaginismus

Vaginismus is an underreported and often misunderstood condition, making it difficult to obtain accurate prevalence data. However, studies suggest vaginismus may affect many women worldwide.

Despite its prevalence, vaginismus remains a relatively unknown and stigmatized condition in many parts of the world. Increased awareness and understanding of vaginismus are essential for improving access to appropriate care and support for those affected.

These disorders are often interrelated and may require a combination of treatments to address the underlying causes.


Vaginismus is always a symptom of underlying anxiety.  Medical professionals must be well-informed about vaginismus, its symptoms, and treatment options to provide the most effective care possible.  Vaginismus can be overcome with proper diagnosis, treatment, and support – there is no reason to live with vaginismus!

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