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Vulvodynia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Vulvodynia, also known as chronic vulvar pain or vulvar dysesthesia, is a medical condition that affects countless women, yet it often remains underdiagnosed. Characterized by persistent discomfort or pain in the vulvar area without an identifiable cause, this condition can significantly impact the quality of life. 

According to a study published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vulvodynia is common but rarely diagnosed [Reed et al., 2012]. The study revealed that about 8.3% of the women surveyed had symptoms of vulvodynia. This translates to roughly 101,000 women in the study’s target group. The rate of vulvodynia didn’t change much for women up to 70 years old, but it did decrease after that age. For sexually active women, the rate was about the same across all age groups. What’s concerning is that out of 208 women who showed clear signs of vulvodynia, less than half had sought medical help, and only a tiny fraction—just 1.4%—had been formally diagnosed [Reed et al., 2012].

This guide aims to give you a comprehensive understanding of vulvodynia, covering its symptoms, causes, and the latest research-backed treatment options.

Woman in pain thinking about consulting with women's health center provider about vulvodynia symptoms and treatment options.

What is Vulvodynia?

Vulvodynia is a chronic medical condition that manifests as persistent pain or discomfort in the vulva, the external female genital area regardless of vaginal penetration. Unlike other conditions that cause vulvar pain, vulvodynia is characterized by the absence of a clear, identifiable cause such as infection or skin disease. 

The pain from vulvodynia is often described as a burning or stinging sensation that lasts for three months or more, making it a long-term issue with significant implications for a woman’s quality of life, emotional well-being, and sexual health.

Symptoms of Vulvodynia

Vulvodynia is characterized by a range of symptoms that can significantly impact a woman’s quality of life. While the symptoms can vary in intensity and duration, they often share common characteristics:

  • Persistent Vulvar Discomfort or Pain is the hallmark symptom of vulvodynia. The pain can be constant or intermittent and may be triggered by touch or pressure, such as during sexual intercourse or wearing tight clothing.
  • Burning or Stinging Sensations: Many women describe the pain as a burning or stinging sensation that can be localized to one area of the vulva or spread throughout the region.
  • Itching or Rawness: Some women experience itching or a feeling of rawness, which can be particularly distressing and may lead to further complications if not properly managed.
  • Pain During Sexual Intercourse: Dyspareunia, or pain during sexual intercourse, is a common symptom of vulvodynia. This can have a significant emotional toll, affecting relationships and mental well-being.
  • Pain During Other Activities: Sitting for extended periods, exercising, or even walking can exacerbate the symptoms, limiting daily activities and lifestyle choices.

A 2016 Journal of Women’s Health study showed that while many women see their vulvodynia symptoms go away, the relief might not last. About half of the women whose symptoms disappeared experienced a return of symptoms within 6 to 30 months [Reed et al., 2016]. This highlights how vulvodynia can come and go, making it important to get diagnosed and treated as soon as possible.

Causes of Vulvodynia

Figuring out the causes of vulvodynia can be tricky due to it’s a complex condition that isn’t fully understood yet. However, research has pointed to some possible factors:

Psychological Factors

Studies show that stress and depression can be linked to vulvodynia. One study from 2007 found that treating these mental health issues can also improve vulvodynia symptoms [Tribó et al., 2007]. Another study from 2014 suggests that long-term stress from childhood might be connected to vulvodynia later in life [Khandker et al., 2014].

Hormonal Factors

Hormones play a significant role in regulating bodily functions, including those of the reproductive system. Imbalances or changes in hormone levels, such as during menopause or pregnancy, could potentially trigger or exacerbate vulvodynia symptoms.

Genetic Factors

Some individuals may have a genetic predisposition to vulvodynia, meaning it runs in families. While research is ongoing, inherited traits could make some women more susceptible to developing the condition.

Neuropathic Problems

Neuropathic issues refer to nerve problems which could be due to injury or other medical conditions. Damaged nerves in the vulvar area could send pain signals, contributing to vulvodynia.

Past Vaginal Infections

A history of vaginal infections, such as yeast or bacterial infections, could lead to long-term sensitivities or reactions in the vulvar area. This could be a potential cause for the persistent pain associated with vulvodynia.


Inflammation refers to the body’s natural response to injury or infection, which can result in swelling and irritation. In the context of vulvodynia, inflammation in the vulvar area could be a contributing factor to the pain and discomfort experienced.

Irritation from Products

Exposure to harsh chemicals or materials, such as in soaps, lotions, or even laundry detergents, can irritate the sensitive skin of the vulva. This irritation could be a contributing factor to vulvodynia symptoms.

While the exact causes of vulvodynia are not fully understood, these are the factors most commonly considered in its diagnosis and treatment.

Types of Vulvodynia

Understanding the different types of vulvodynia is crucial for both diagnosis and treatment. The condition is generally categorized into two main types, each with its own set of characteristics and potential subtypes:

  1. Localized Vulvodynia is characterized by pain confined to a specific area of the vulva. The most common form of localized vulvodynia is vestibulodynia, where the pain is concentrated around the vestibule, the area surrounding the vaginal opening. This type of pain is often provoked, meaning it occurs in response to touch or pressure, such as during sexual intercourse, tampon insertion, or even sitting for long periods.
  2. Generalized Vulvodynia affects multiple areas of the vulva without a clear, consistent trigger. The pain can be constant or intermittent and occurs spontaneously without provocation.


  • Unprovoked Generalized Vulvodynia occurs spontaneously without any apparent trigger like touch or pressure.
  • Provoked Generalized Vulvodynia occurs in response to non-sexual activities that pressure the vulva, such as sitting or wearing tight clothing.


Each of these types and subtypes can further be categorized based on the duration and timing of the pain, which can be either constant or intermittent. Understanding these nuances is important for healthcare providers to diagnose accurately and develop an effective treatment plan tailored to the individual’s specific symptoms and needs.

Diagnosing Vulvodynia

Diagnosing vulvodynia is challenging, as highlighted by a study published in the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 2014. This study aimed to compare the incidence of vulvar pain and care-seeking behavior in two different metropolitan areas—Boston and Minneapolis/Saint Paul—over different periods. 

The study revealed that by age 40, about 7-8% of women in both Boston and Minneapolis/Saint Paul had experienced vulvar pain, a key symptom of vulvodynia. Despite the widespread nature of this issue, many women didn’t seek medical help—48% in Minneapolis/Saint Paul and 30% in Boston. Even when they did seek help, over half didn’t get a diagnosis, even though they had healthcare access. These results highlight the challenges in diagnosing vulvodynia and suggest a need for better healthcare approaches [Harlow et al., 2014].

Here are the steps of diagnosing Vulvodynia:

Initial Consultation

The first step in diagnosing vulvodynia usually involves an initial consultation with a healthcare provider. The patient’s medical history is reviewed during this consultation, and any symptoms are discussed in detail.

Physical Examination

A physical examination follows the initial consultation. The healthcare provider may apply light pressure to various parts of the vulva to identify areas of pain. The aim is to rule out other conditions like infections or skin abnormalities.

Diagnostic Tests

Diagnostic tests may include swabs and cultures to rule out infections and biopsies to exclude skin conditions. These tests are essential for confirming the diagnosis and ruling out other potential causes.

Psychological & Sexual Evaluation

Given that vulvodynia is often associated with psychological factors like stress and depression, a psychological and sexual evaluation may be conducted. This can help understand the extent to which these factors contribute to the condition.

Specialist Referrals

Depending on the findings from the initial tests and evaluations, referrals to specialists like dermatologists, neurologists, or pelvic floor physical therapists may be made for further examination and treatment.

Confirmatory Tests

Finally, confirmatory tests may be conducted to solidify the diagnosis. These could include additional imaging tests or more specialized examinations.

Treatment Options for Vulvodynia 

Managing vulvodynia often requires a multi-pronged approach tailored to the individual’s symptoms and underlying causes. 

Here are some of the most common treatments:


Medication can be prescribed to help manage the symptoms of vulvodynia. These may include anticonvulsants for nerve pain, antidepressants for chronic pain, and topical anesthetics to numb the affected area temporarily.

Physical Therapy

Pelvic floor physical therapy can be particularly effective in treating vulvodynia. Vaginal dilators may be used to recondition the vagina for the act of penetrative sex.

Psychological Support

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is often recommended to address the emotional or psychological factors that may contribute to vulvodynia. This approach helps patients understand the relationship between their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and how these can impact their condition.

Sexual Counseling

Educational programs and counseling can improve sexual function and reduce pain by enhancing communication and understanding between partners. This approach often complements other treatment methods, providing a more holistic solution to managing vulvodynia.

Surgical Interventions

In extreme cases, surgical procedures like vestibulectomy may be considered. This involves the removal of the affected skin and tissue to alleviate pain. However, surgery is generally considered a last resort after other treatment options have been exhausted.

Lifestyle Modifications

Simple lifestyle changes can sometimes alleviate symptoms. These may include wearing cotton underwear, avoiding irritants like scented soaps, and using water-based lubricants during sexual activity.

When to Consult a Healthcare Provider about Vulvodynia

Specific instances when medical consultation is advised include persistent pain that continues over multiple sexual encounters, intense or unbearable pain, pain accompanied by other unusual symptoms like bleeding or discharge, or irregular menstrual cycles. If you experience persistent or severe symptoms of vulvodynia, it’s important to consult a healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment plan. 

Women who are postmenopausal and experience painful intercourse should also seek an evaluation, as this could be indicative of hormonal imbalances or other underlying conditions. If the pain leads to emotional or psychological issues, such as anxiety or depression, professional medical advice is strongly recommended. 

Early intervention often leads to more effective treatment, so don’t hesitate to seek professional medical advice if you’re experiencing symptoms. There is no reason to accept sexual pain as inevitable nor to refrain from sexual intimacy because of the pain.

How do you know if you have vulvodynia?

Symptoms of vulvodynia include persistent vulvar pain, burning, or discomfort. If you experience these symptoms, consult a healthcare provider for a thorough diagnosis, including a pelvic exam, symptom review, and possibly additional tests.

At what age do you get vulvodynia?

Vulvodynia can affect women of all ages, but it is most commonly diagnosed in women of childbearing age. However, postmenopausal women are also at risk due to hormonal changes.

What is the main cause of vulvodynia?

The main cause of vulvodynia is not fully understood, but it is believed to be a combination of factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, nerve injury, and genetic factors.

What can be mistaken for vulvodynia?

Conditions like yeast infections, bacterial vaginosis, and contact dermatitis can have similar symptoms and may be mistaken for vulvodynia. Accurate diagnosis is crucial for effective treatment.

Is vulvodynia caused by anxiety?

While anxiety does not directly cause vulvodynia, emotional and psychological factors can exacerbate the symptoms. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is often recommended to address these aspects.

What makes vulvodynia worse?

Factors like hormonal changes, stress, and certain lifestyle choices, such as using scented feminine products, can worsen vulvodynia.

How do you fix vulvodynia?

Fixing vulvodynia often involves a multi-pronged approach that may include medication, physical therapy, psychological support, surgical interventions, lifestyle modifications, and sexual counseling. Consult a healthcare provider for a tailored treatment plan.

How do you calm a vulvodynia flare-up?

Calming a vulvodynia flare-up may involve using prescribed medications, applying cold compresses, and avoiding irritants like scented soaps. Consult your healthcare provider for personalized advice.

Does vulvodynia ever go away?

Vulvodynia can sometimes go into remission but may also be a chronic condition. Treatment can often manage symptoms effectively, but it’s not guaranteed to permanently make the condition disappear.

What is the longest time vulvodynia can last?

The duration of vulvodynia varies from person to person. For some, it may last a few months; for others, it can be a chronic condition lasting for years.

What happens if vulvodynia is left untreated?

If left untreated, vulvodynia can lead to chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, secondary vaginismus, and emotional or psychological distress. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for effective management.

Contact Women’s Therapy Center for Vulvodynia Treatment Options

If you’re experiencing symptoms of vulvodynia and are seeking professional guidance, the Women’s Therapy Center in New York offers specialized treatment options tailored to your needs. With over 30 years of specializing in women’s sexual health, our team offers in-depth knowledge and experience. 

Why Choose Women’s Therapy Center?

  • Expertise: The center has specialized in women’s sexual health for over 30 years, offering in-depth knowledge and experience.
  • Personalized Treatment Plans: After a thorough diagnosis, a tailored treatment plan is developed to address your specific symptoms and underlying causes.
  • Multidisciplinary Approach: The center employs a range of healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care.

How to Contact

  • Phone: You can reach out to the Women’s Therapy Center via phone to schedule an initial consultation.
  • Online Form: An online contact form is available on their website for easy appointment scheduling.

Don’t let painful intercourse affect your quality of life. Contact the Women’s Therapy Center for expert diagnosis and treatment options.of 

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